Archaeo-geology

Silk route

[29-12-13M vbm]Sumber: lecture 1 Waugh (2002)
Nama atau istilah silkroute pertama kali dipakai oleh Ferdinand von Richthofen ahli geografi dari Jerman pd th 1870an untuk jalur perdagangan di Asia tengah yg menghubungkan barat (India & timteng) dg Cina di timur. Pada kenyataanx silkroute itu bukan hanya 1 jalur sj tetapi ada banyak jalur silkroute di Eurasia. Jalur in yg merupakan jalur pertukaran ekonomi & budaya diperkirakan sdh ada sejak 2000 BCE (SM). Oleh karena itu jalur silkroute bs dianggap sbg bukti adax ancient globalization

Bgm jalur silkroute pd masa
1] Dinasti Han (206BCE – 220AD)
2] Dinasti Tan (618 – 907AD)
3] Mongol empire (1206-1368)
4] Timurids (1370-late 15th century)

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[15oct13Sl vbm 10dzulhijah1434H]
1290 [24oct13K vbm lahir adikx fulki di rs islam jam 8.30]
@nomadic Xiongnu mengancam (menace) batas utara & barat wil kekuasaan disnasti Han [p.157]

@pd th 128BCE ketika Zhang Qian di Bactria dia melihat barang2 dagangan dr Cina spt tekstil, bamboo articles [barang] dijual di sana. Barang2 tsb datang dr southwest China & masuk lewat Bengal. Dia kmd berkesimpulan bhw pergadangan ant Cina & Bactria bisa dilakukan lewat India. Ide Zhang ini kmd ditangkap oleh Han Wudi & terwujudlah SILK ROUTE yi the net-work of trade routes that linked lands as distant as China & the Roman empire— & more generally to the establishment of relations between China & lands to the west. Melalui jalu ini Cina jg fostered the spread of cultural, religious, & political traditions to distant regions, & they encouraged the construction of institutional frameworks that promoted the long-term survival of those traditions [p.157]

@Jalur silk route & efekx yi memicu perkembangan dibelahan bumi timur
==>Long-distance trade passed through much of
Eurasia and north Africa, from China to the Mediterranean basin, & to parts of sub-Saharan Africa as well.That long-distance trade profoundly [mendlm] influenced the experiences of peoples & the development of societies throughout the eastern hemisphere
==>Long-distance trade thus had deep political, social, & cultural as well as economic & commercial implications for classical societies [p.158]

@Pd masa sebelum jaman klasik, perjalanan jauh sangat beresiko. Masy pd masa itu mampu menjaga daerahx sendiri tetapi jika mrk punya kawasan yg luas mrk tdk mampu menjagax. Pd masa klasik resiko itu bs dikurangi dg cara membangun jln & jembatan & memperkuata kekuatan militerx [p.158]

@Aktivitas long-distance trade makin meningkat selama Hellenistic era krn banyak kawasan menjd kekuasaanx Alexander of Macedon [p.158]

@Munculx banyak kerajaan pd jaman klasik memicu perluasan long-distance trade yg menghub Euraseia dg north Africa [p.159]

@Nama SILK ROUTE berkaitan dg sutera yg menjd andalanx Cina. Jalur daratx menghub China dg ker Roma (thus linking the extreme ends of the Eurasian landmass) [p.159]

@Jalur laut SILK ROUTE
==>The silk roads also included a network of sea lanes that sustained maritime commerce throughout much of the eastern hemisphere. From Guangzhou in southern China, sea lanes through the South China Sea linked the east Asian seaboard to the mainland & the islands of southeast Asia. Routes linking southeast Asia with Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka) & India were especially busy during classical times. From India, sea lanes passed through the Arabian Sea to Persia and Arabia, & through the Persian Gulf & the Red Sea they offered access to land routes & the Mediterranean basin, which already possessed a well-developed network of trade routes [p.159]

@Barang2 yg diperdagangkan di SILK ROUTE adl silk & spices traveled west from producers in SE.Asia to Asia, China & India to consumers in central Asia, Iran, Arabia & Roman empire. Silk came mostly from China, & the fine spices—cloves, nutmeg, mace, & cardamom—all came from southeast Asia. Ginger came from China, cinnamon from China & southeast Asia, pepper from India, and sesame oil from India, Arabia, and southwest Asia. Spices were extremely important commodities in classical
times because they had many more uses than they do in the modern world. They served not only as condiments & flavoring agents but also as drugs, anesthetics, aphrodisiacs, perfumes, aromatics, & magical potions. For the silk & spices they imported, western lands exchanged a variety of manufactured goods & other commodities, including horses & jade from central Asia & glassware, jewelry, textiles, & pottery from the Roman empire [p.160]

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