Manungso Lawas


# Various types of dental diseases have afflicted [menimpa] humans since the earliest times [1620:395]

# A great variation in occurrence of dental caries has been found during different time periods, with an increase observed in more recent years (Corbett and Moore, 1976; Molnar and Molnar, 1985) [1620:395]

# The strong correlation between diet and dental caries is today widely accepted (Gustafsson et al., 1954; Newbrun, 1982; Edmondson, 1990).

# Cumulative evidence nevertheless suggests that both the amount of sugar consumption and the frequency of ingesting between-meal sugary snacks are related to caries in humans as well as in animals [1632:423]

# An increase in caries prevalence has often been found in isolated undeveloped countries during adaptation to western habits (Barmes, 1977). The increase in caries found in both archaeological as well as recent populations has been related to the introduction of sugars and other refined carbohydrates in the diet (Larsen et al., 1991). Of these carbohydrates, sucrose has been considered the main cause of dental decay (Newbrun, 1982). However, it has been shown that caries occurred before any refined carbohydrates were present in the diet and in populations without exposure to sucrose (Begg, 1954; Clement,1956) [1620:395-396]

# High levels of caries have also been noted with diets consisting of frequent consumption of different starches, e.g. sago or rice (Edmondson, 1990) [1620:396]

# The number of teeth lost ante and post-mortem (AM and PM) was examined. In order to determine whether the tooth loss was ante or post-mortem, the tooth sockets were studied (Gustafson, 1966) [1620:396]

# The recording of the caries lesions was obtained macroscopically by observing the occurrence of caries with the aid of a curved explorer, a magnifying mirror and a strong source of light similar to that used for examination of patients in the dental chair [1620:396]

# The upper central incisors were the teeth most often found to be lost post-mortem and the lower canines, premolars and molars the ones lost least often post-mortem (Figure 2). The highestante-mortem tooth loss was found for molars in the lower jaw together with the upper right third molar (teeth 18, 36, 37, 46, 47 and 48) [1620:397]

# Higher numbers of teeth with caries were found for the lower jaw compared to the upper jaw. The lower molars showed higher caries scores than the other tooth groups. Comparing the three groups
of molars, caries were found more frequently in the first and second lower molars together with the lower right third molar [1620:398]
[18mar12M VBM]
# Dental caries rates are frequently based exclusively upon the number of carious teeth observed in a human skeletal series. However, a portion of the teeth lost antemortem [AM] will be lost because of severe carious decay, a factor not considered by many investigators [1546:151]

# Data derived from the human dentition provide valuable clues permitting reconstruction of oral health and diet, age at time of death, general stress levels during childhood and occupational or non-dietary behaviours of earlier human populations [1546:151]

# However, the dental remains of ancient people do not always yield their clues to past lifeways easily. Problems arise from a variety of sources, including incompleteness of specimens owing to post-burial damage or secondary burial, biases in representation of specific components (age, sex, social group) of the skeletal sample and soil or chemical damage to specimens resulting in pseudopathological lesions [1546:151]

# Loos of teeth from archaeologically derived [yg berasal dr] human skeletal specimens is a critical problem in osteological and dental anthropological research [1546:151]

# Tooth loss is generally recorded preliminary is studies of prehistoric dental remains as antemortem (DURING LIFE) or post-mortem (AFTER DEATH) [1546:151]

# The key evidence involves discerning remodelling of alveolar bone and partial or complete resorption of the alveolus. The alveoli of teeth lost immediately (days to a week) before death will not yield evidence of resorption or remodelling and will be confused with cases of post-mortem [PM] tooth loss [1546:151-152]

[12mar12Sn VBM]
# The observed caries rate was calculated as a simple proportion of the number of carious teeth (or individuals) over the total number of teeth observed (or individuals) [162:72]

[16apr12Sn VBM]
DENTAL CARIES jarang pada prehitoric people because lacing of refined sugar (tetapi) Teeth of Skhul V (p.242) memperlihatkan DENTAL CARIES juga RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS [Johanson & Edgar 1996:28]

R2 and R3-4 2010
Dental caries

VBM 17mar12St


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