Manungso Lawas

Sampung

SAMPUNGIt is located 1.6 km south of Sampung nearby Ponorogo (East Java). This site is also called as Guwo (means cave) Lowo. The first find was a human skeleton found by van Es in 1930. The position was in flexed position, with right hand on the face. Later, the systematic excavation was performed by van Stein Callenfels from 1928 to 1931.

The fauna of Sampung is subrecent Indo-Malayan fauna which is also found in other Mesolithic caves in East Java including Wajak. The Sampung’s fauna also contains several species already extinct in Java such as Elephas maximus, Bos bubalis, and Rhinoceros sondaicus.

Sampung H is one of human samples from this site. It consists of a skull with mandible and teeth and the innominate bones which were described by Jacob (1967), while the others were done by Mijsberg (Storm 1995). From Sampung site was found a plenty of bones tools and stone tools as well. The Sampung bone culture was presumed to be approximately between 8000-5000 years ago.

Till now, the Sampung bone culture has been encountered on a large scale only in East Java, especially on the north and the south coast, stretching from Madiun and Bojonegoro to Puger and Prajekan.

Apart from the tools made of stone, bone and shell, all caves displayed great quantities of red ochre used for ceremonial purposes and Sampung bone culture was supposed as to reflect the transition between hunter-gather to horticulture (semi-sedentary) way of life.

References:
Heekeren, Van. 1972. The stone age of Indonesia. The Hague-Martinus
Nijhoff.

Jacob, T. 1967. Some problems pertaining to the racial history of the Indonesian region. Drukkerij Neerlandia, Utrecht.

Strom, P. 1995. The evolutionary significance of the Wajak skulls. Scripta Geologica, Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, the Netherland.

Tanudirjo, D.A. 1985. Sampung culture as a transitional culture from hunter-gatherer to horticulture. Unpublished B.Sc. thesis, Department of Archaeology, Gajah Mada University, Indonesia. (In Indonesia).
13 Ramadhan 1430H, pasca earth quake 7.3 sR at Tasikmalaya
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